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& Tan
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"GENETICALLY"  SPEAKING......Dogs are either black or brown --
-B/B- D/D- E/E- K/K- = black   OR  b/b D/D- E/E- K/K- = brown 

- other alleles (genes) act upon each other to create different colors or 
different shades of colors. 
It is theorized that all breeds of dogs have all of the alleles for different colors. 
Some dogs have been selectively bred over many years to be dominant for a certain color or colors.
 A few  examples would be the  Golden Retriever, Irish Setter, Weimaraner, Lab etc...

When you are looking at coat color, it is best to look at the entire picture. 
The entire picture being all the alleles that encode for color.

You need to look at each individual allele and then put them together for the 
complete coat color.

Keeping in mind that each puppy receives a copy of each allele from their parents.

The first listed allele is expressed, the second one is hidden or carried.
 If one parent is brown (b/b)
 [also called chocolate] the "b" allele is the ONLY one that can be copied and inherited
 by the puppy. So, the puppy will receive a copy of the "b" allele from one parent. 
If the other parent is B/B the only allele that the puppy 
can receive is "B". So, every puppy will be B/b -- black, carrying brown.

Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
DILUTE BLACK DOWN AS FAR AS IT WILL GO AND YOU GET THIS :
IT IS CALLED " ICE WHITE "
Super Girl Of Chiaoliya
Super Girl Of Chiaoliya

If one parent is B/b, the puppy can receive either "B" or "b". 
If the other parent is also B/b, the puppy can 
receive either "B" or "b". The puppies could be: B/B - black; B/b - black, and carrying brown; or b/b -  brown/chocolate.
Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
DILUTE cHOCOLATE AS FAR AS IT WILL GO DOWN AND YOU GET THIS :
IT IS CALLED " WHITE CHOCOLATE " OR DILUTED BEAVER 
ABOVE IS CAMELOTS ICE WHITE CHOCOLATE 

The 'address' where the genes are located are called Locus (Loci is the plural).
 Each Locus contains the different genes that are responsible for encoding (telling) 
coat color. Some also change skin pigment (like  the nose, eye rims and lips).


Each Locus, with it's genes, are important, because a breeder can either breed a 
certain color into their breeding program or breed it out.
 A breeder can either lighten or darken the coat color, also. 
Coat color can also prove sometimes that the sire, 
the person says sired the litter, couldn't genetically be the right one.

Pigment distribution patterns are controlled by the E and A Loci.

The E Locus is important because the genes from this Locus are responsible and 
control black (E/E or E/e) and red (e/e) color.

If a dog is the black (E/E or E/e) color, ----
 as other color genes are added, the color either changes or remains black. 

Ch Starfire's Aunt-Jemima
Ch Starfire's Aunt-Jemima

The red   red (e/e) color is the red color you see on an

Red Pomeranian 

It comes in different shades   OF RED ,  ORANGE  AND  CREME 
  are all red (e/e)




contains the genes that encode for :
sable (a^y),
Ch Elan's Infinity
Ch Elan's Infinity
 wolf (a^w),
Can Ch Pondside Wings of an Angel
Can Ch Pondside Wings of an Angel

 tan points (a^t), 
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture

and recessive black (a^a). 
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Most solid black dogs are solid black because they have the dominant black gene, but there is another type of black - recessive black

Recessive black is very rare  AND are thought to carry both recessive and dominant black. 
Recessive black is thought to be on the A locus. It is denoted by a, and is generally put right at the bottom of the A locus because it is recessive to every other A locus gene 

(sable Ay, agouti aw, tan points at, saddle markings as).

 This means that if a dog has just one a gene, it will not be solid black

 (but sable, tan-pointed, etc), as it needs two a genes for the recessive gene to work.

Recessive black is, aesthetically, no different to dominant black.

Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF

 The only difference is in the breeding - a solid black puppy could be born from two parents

 who are non-solid black if they both carry (without expressing) one copy of the recessive black gene, whereas a dominant black pup could only be born if one or both of its parents are also dominant blacks

Another important aspect of recessive black is that it is on a different locus to dominant black.

 

This makes it the only way that a dog can still be solid black if it is kk 

Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF

(non-solid black) on the K locus.

Unless you're a dog breeder, recessive black is unimportant (but it's still quite an interesting discovery!).

In order for this coloration to be expressed (seen), the dog must also be "k/k". 

Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF


All Pomeranians  that have tan 
points are "k/k", all Pomeranians
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture
 that do not have tan points are either "K/K" or "K/k".
 If you breed two dogs that 
have tan points, EVERY puppy in the litter will have tan points.
 If you can't see any tan points, look 
underneath the tail --- it's usually there before any place else on the body.
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture
Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture


Color that is modified by diluting colors are controlled by the
 B, C, D, and M Loci. 
The dog will inherit all of these genes, 
either in the dominant or recessive form.

These genes are the "ingredients" that will either:
 not change, lighten, or darken the color of the coat.

Pomeranians  that are black (K/K or K/k)
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF

 [remembering that one copy of the gene comes from the dog  and one copy comes from the bitch].
 Since the alleles are in the dominant form, the alleles at the A Locus 
can not be expressed (tan points can not be expressed, but may be 'carried' [hidden]). These are the solid 
colored and self-merle dogs (no tan).

If the puppy gets the "B" gene (black) from his sire and a "B" gene from his dam; 
he is then B/B. This says to stay black and not carry brown. 
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
If the Merle gene is added, the color would be black merle
 (called blue merle in the Pomeranian  breed).
Pom Picture
Pombreden's Kauai Blue O-Ce-Ann
If the puppy gets B/b --- this says to stay black, but carry brown 
(this is a hidden color and you can't see it). If 
the Merle gene is added, the color would be black merle.


If the puppy gets b/b (brown) --- this says to turn the color to brown (chocolate). 
This coloration also turns the 
nose, eye rims and lips brown. It also will lighten the iris's of the eyes.
 When bred to another dog with this 
gene combination, ONLY brown puppies will be produced. 
Janesa puppy
Janesa puppy
If the Merle gene is added, the color would be chocolate merle  or Sable Merle
and will have a brown nose, eye rims and lips.
Pombreden's Kialua Kona Koffee's - newborn to adult
Pom Picture
Pom Picture
Pom Picture

Sable Merle
Pombreden's Kialua Kona Koffee's - newborn to adult
Pom Picture
Pom Picture
Pom Picture
The next gene added are the "D" genes. If he is black (B/B or B/b) and gets D/D, his black color remains the 
same. If the Merle gene is added, the color is still black merle.

If he is black (B/B or B/b) and gets D/d, his black color remains the same, 
but now he is carrying "d". If the 
Merle gene is added, the color is still black merle.

If he is black (B/B or B/b) and gets d/d 

(which is the homozygous recessive form),

 that will dilute the black  color to blue. 

The nose, eye rims and lips will be gray. Sometimes, they are dark gray. The iris's are also lightened. If the Merle gene is added, the color will dilute to blue merle. This merle is true blue (d/d) merle  and is much lighter than the black merle. In the true blue merle,
 all of the black patches have been diluted to blue, gray, and pewter colors 
(no black color is found). The nose, lips and eye rims will be also be gray.

If he is brown/chocolate (b/b) and gets D/D or D/d, his color remains brown/chocolate. 
The nose, lips and eye rims are brown. If two dogs are mated that are both b/b D/D, all of the puppies will be brown. If the Merle gene is added, the color would be chocolate merle.

If he is brown/chocolate (b/b) and gets d/d, then his brown is diluted to a dull, 
flat silvery-brown color called 
dilute brown (called Lilac in the Pomeranian  breed). 
The nose, lips and eye rims are a rosey-gray color.
 If 
two dogs are mated that are both b/b d/d (Lilac), all of the puppies will be Lilac. If the Merle gene is added, 
the color will be a Lilac Merle. 
This color is a very light coloration. Some puppies are born very light in color 
and darken with age.

The next genes added are the C genes. If the puppy gets C/C to any combination of the B and D genes, his 
color is dictated by the B and D genes. **NOTE: most dogs are C/C.

If the puppy gets the Chinchilla gene, this gene will not have any noticeable
 affect on the black colored puppy. 
If the puppy is a black merle, the diluted patches or gray, lighten to light silver.

If the puppy is blue, this gene will lighten him to a silverish blue color.
 If the puppy is a blue merle, the diluted 
patches will lighten even more.

If the puppy is brown/chocolate, this gene will lighten him to a light colored milk chocolate. If the puppy is a chocolate merle, this gene will lighten the patches even more.

Dogs that are k/k: remember that when the "K" is in the recessive form (k/k),
 it allows the expression of the alleles at the A Locus.

The coloration, according to the gene pairs the dog has, would be the same as above, except now ---- 
whatever the dog is carrying at the A Locus is also expressed. 
For example: now the tan points are expressed.

Let's now talk about dogs that are red/yellow (e/e). 
This is a mutation and does not allow any black hair 
coloration to be produced. It doesn't matter what other genes are present, 
the dog will be red, yellow, or tan
The color shades can vary anywhere from white, pale yellow, biscuit color, butter cream, to a burnt red, fox red, orange, to a copper penny color. The color depends greatly on the genes at the D and C Locus. This 
coloration is found in the Pomeranian  breed.

Dogs that are (e/e) can range in the colors listed above and if they have a black nose,
 lips, eye rims, are said to be genetically black.  

Dogs that are (e/e) and brown (b/b), the color will not change to chocolate.
 However, the nose, lips, eye rims 
will be brown - readily identifying the dog as being genetically brown.

Dogs that are (e/e) and blue (d/d), the color will be diluted to yellow
 (this is the fact *most* of the time, but not always -- the dog could be a reddish color). 
 The nose, lips, eye rims will always be gray - readily identifying 
the dog as being genetically a diluted black (blue).

Dogs that are (e/e) and brown (b/b) and blue (d/d), 
since the brown has no color changing effects, but blue 
does ---- the dog will be diluted to yellow.  The nose, lips, eye rims will be a rosey-brown
this is reffered to as Beaver in the Pomeranian breed .
Ch Heartland's Knight N Day
CH Heartland's Knight N Day

NOTE: if the dog is K/K or K/k --- the tan points can only be carried, not expressed.
 If the dog is k/k, the tan points, even though are expressed, may not be evident on the e/e red or yellow dog, as the tan points are usually the same color as the dog's coat.



The placement of white areas on the coat are controlled by the
 S and T Loci
(Party Colored)

The genes located on the S Locus are very important genes to the Party  Pomeranian  breeder, especially those that breed merle to merle. ( Lethal White )


The S Locus is responsible for white spotting, no matter what other genes are being expressed and carried (hidden), including the merle pattern. 
If the breeder is having too much white being produced, even though 
the dog and bitch being used do not have much white on them, by understanding the genes responsible for 
"adding" white, a breeder will know how to breed accordingly.
 Even though a dog may have very little white 
on him, he may be carrying a gene that encodes for lots of white. 
When bred to another dog with these same 
genes, the breeder usually gets a surprise with puppies having lots of white on them. Sometimes, if too much white is being produced on the offspring and parents are being used that do not have white, or have very minimal amount of white, using a different sire with that bitch sometimes alleviates the "too much white problem.. These genes are in order of dominance (from most to least).

The first gene is the "Self" gene (S) - this gene is responsible for solid color and is dominant over the rest of the genes. The chest spot and white under belly have been found to be caused by two different genes. The chest spot is dominant over the white under belly pattern (coloration). A dog that is solid color or solid color 
with white on the toe tips, could be carrying any of the other spotting genes. And when bred to another dog with the same gene combination, could produce puppies without any white, very little white, or lots of white.

The second gene is the "Irish" spotting gene (s^i) - this gene is responsible for white on the feet, neck, and tail tip. 

The third gene is the "piebald" spotting gene (s^p) - this gene is responsible for white being on 50% of the body. There are usually colored spots on the back. If a dog has the piebald pattern, he should not be bred to 
another dog with the same pattern, unless you like dogs with that pattern. If a dog is piebald and merle (spots are merled), 

he should not be bred to another merle with

 the same pattern. This mating would surely
 
produce all white puppies, with some being

 deaf and possibly blind.


The fourth gene is the "extreme piebald" spotting gene (s^w) - this gene is responsible for a dog being almost 100% white  or white with only a tiny spot of color somewhere usually around the head area . Deafness and blindness is  SOMETIMES associated with this spotting pattern. Not every dog that is the extreme piebald pattern will be blind or deaf. A person would not want to breed a dog with this pattern to a merle and surely not to a double merle. 



The M Locus controls the dilution of the dog's coat in a patchy pattern of dilute and
 normal color. It is an  intermixed or patchy pattern of various dark and light areas of 
color on the coat. Merle does not affect the tan points.

There is an additional merle modifying dominant gene that 
turns the lighter patched areas white. It is believed that when the allelic pair is homozygous, it is an embryonic lethal.




Under the influence of the merle gene, a black coat becomes gray patched 
with black and a brown coat  becomes dilute red patched with brown.



Merle acts as a "minus" modifier (meaning it 'takes away color') for alleles of the "S" Locus (Spotting).

Merle is an example of incomplete dominance. This means it has intermediate expression:

"M/M" - Homozygous or Double Merle alleles produces almost white dogs: 
These dogs have more white 
than is normal for the breed (they are almost all white).
 They may also have hearing losses and/or vision 
problems. If "M/M" is present, along with the spotting gene, 
these physical problems seem to be much worse. 
 When breeding merle to merle if any of the offspring are non-merle,
 then neither parent is a 
homozygous (double) merle.  It is much better to breed a merle to a non-merle to avoid producing puppies with impairments.  
If a person is set on breeding merle to merle, 
then is it safer to breed a self merle to self merle.  
A self merle is a dog with base color + merle pattern 
and does not have any white on them
 (they could, however; carry the irish, piebald, or extreme piebald alleles).

** NOTE:  The homozygous merles that are almost all white or have much white 
is due to the "doubling" effect of the merle genes on the Spotting genes 
(irish, piebald or extreme piebald).  Deafness and vision 
impairments are thus caused by the LACK of pigment (white) 
and are not solely caused by the effects of the 
merle dilution gene in the homozygous form.  


"M/m" - Merle, carrying non-merle. Merle pattern and the eyes can be blue or marbled (brown and blue segments in the eyes).


"m/m" - non-merle - Normal color - Non- merle.

Cryptic or phantom (as it's sometimes called)
 merles are dogs which carry a merle gene but are 
phenotypically (look like) tri, bi or self colored. 
These dogs will have some small area of merling somewhere, 
usually a tiny patch of merle pattern on their ear, tail, top of head, etc. 
Keep in mind the tiny patch can be only 
one hair and it can be located anywhere on the body. 
Cryptic merles are very rare. 
AGAIN, a cryptic or 
visible merle can only be produced when one or both parents are merles.



An interesting theory is that merle is a "fragile" gene that easily allows the merle (M) gene to 
mutate back into the non-merle (m/m) gene. This "fragility" may be caused by a transposon, which 
is a small mobile "parasite" DNA element similar to a virus. 
Rather than infecting other animals, the 
transposon infects the host's offspring.

Much mammalian DNA consists of inactive "dead" (mutated) 
transposons, which are found in 
nearly all animals. Active transposons are a major cause of mutations. Transposons can move 
around. When they "jump into" a gene they can disrupt its function.

The transposon responsible for merle is called "non-replicative," meaning that when it "jumps 
out" of a location function may be restored to its host gene. 
More often, the transposon excises 
sloppily and leaves an irreparably damaged gene behind.
 If the transposon excises cleanly in a 
cell that goes on to become a sperm or ova, offspring conceived from that germ cell will revert to 
wild-type.

The coat pattern of merles (M/m) would occur as some clonal 
descendants would be from 
migrating melanocytes which reverted from 
(M/m) to (m/m) as they migrated to their final location 
in the skin, producing black patches, while other clonal descendents
 from other migrating 
melanocytes would have remained (M/m), producing the lighter patches.

This theory also explains why occasionally a double merle (M/M) bred to black can produce a 
black puppy. When this occurs the mutation most likely occurred in a germ cell. Of course, this 
solid black puppy can also be (Mm) genetically but have such large patches of black that merling 

patches are hidden. ~~ Erick Conrad 

 BLACK



           BROWN

b/b D/- E/- K/- = brown (chocolate)

BLUE

B/- d/d E/- K/- = blue


SABLE
b/b d/d E/- K/- = SABLE  


                                      AGOUTI:   
   

              ( AND TAN )






BLACK AND TAN
Sunglo's Havin A Back-N-Tantrum
Sunglo's Havin A Black-N-Tantrum

  • at^at B/- D/- E/- k/k = black with tan points




CHOCOLATE AND TAN
Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
at^at b/b D/- E/- k/k = 
Chocolate & Tan


BLUE WITH DILUTE TAN POINTS



  • at^at B/- d/d E/- k/k = blue with dilute tan point


SABLE  WITH DILUTE TAN POINTS
CAMELOTS TANDY CREME PRINCE  
at^at b/b d/d E/- k/k = SABLE  with dilute tan points





NON-EXTENSION RED (cream):



~

 

~



  • B/B d/d e/edilute red to pale cream with gray nose
  • (dog is genetically a  dilute black, but will be a dilute color)  silver blue lavender 



  • B/b d/d/ e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose
  • dog is genetically a  dilute black, but will be a dilute color)  grey  blue  lilac

  • B/B D/D e/e
    dilute red to pale cream with black nose
  •  (dog is genetically black,  but will be dilutecolor)  BLUE
  • f you add in the chinchilla gene in a double dose  c^e/c^e it goes to   (BLUE POINTS)blue




B/b D/d e/e  (dog is genetically black, but will be WHITE color) dilute red to pale cream with black nos



  • B/b D/d e/e c^e = ICE CREME 

  • B/b D/d e/e  c^e c^e  = ICE WHITE ! 


  • B/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a dilute 
    black, but will be a dilute color



  • b/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with 
    • rosey-brown nose

          • (dog is genetically  dilute brown, but will be dilute color) 

              •  BEAVER

  • b/b d/d e/e 
    c^e
     R
    ed to pale cream with
         rosey-brown nose


    •  (dog is genetically  dilute brown, but will be dilute color 

            •     BEAVER DILUTE
        •  

b/b d/d e/e  
c^e/c^e  
      • Red to pale cream with       rosey- nose

      (dog is 
      genetically  dilute brown, but will be........

                                                                       
WHITE CHOCOLATE !

  • b/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically 


  • brown, but will be cream color platnumc^b

  • b/b D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically 


  • brown, but will be dilutecolor) silver c^b


 "liver nose c^b" - or blue-eyed albino. This is an entirely white coat with a very small amount of residual pigment in the 
eyes, giving pale green  eyes. It is also called platinum or silver.  This allelic pair could be responsible for the white 
coated, pink skinned, blue-eyed




BB is homozygous Black (not carrying brown)
Bb is heterozygous Black (carrying brown)
bb is homozygous Brown.

D Locus: This dilution gene acts on both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments. It “dilutes” the base color of the dog. If the dog is “D” or dominant, it is fully pigmented. If the dog is “dd”, this recessive gene dilutes the pigment, thereby altering its color. In Border Collies, the d/d gene is associated with skin problems such as Color Dilution Alopecia or hair loss (on the ears is common) which can be seen in the Blue and Lilac dogs.  If the Dilution gene acts on the brown and black coats, you can get the following: black diluted to blue and brown diluted to lilac (see photo to right).

Lilac is caused primarily by a “double recessive” condition of bb at the B gene locus and dd at the Dilute gene locus. It is also possible to produce a Lilac color out of pairings of black-to-black, black to brown, brown-to-brown, black to blue and blue to brown IF the genes are paired correctly AND they both carry the recessive forms of the B and the D gene (“b” and “d”)

To demonstrate the genetic possibilities as mentioned above, let's make both the sire and the dam genotypes the same as BbDd. These black dogs carry both brown and the dilution gene.

BbDd – The Dam can contribute:

BD

bD

Bd

bd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BbDd – The Sire can contribute:

BD

BBDD

BbDD

BBDd

BbDd

 

 

Black

Black

Black

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bD

BbDD

bbDD

BbDd

bbDd

 

 

Black

Brown

Black

Brown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bd

BBDd

BbDd

BBdd

Bbdd

 

 

Black

Black

Blue

Blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bd

BbDd

bbDd

Bbdd

bbdd

 

 

Black

Brown

Blue

Lilac




AGOUTI:   
   

              ( AND TAN )






BLACK AND TAN


  • at^at B/- D/- E/- k/k = black with tan points




CHOCOLATE AND TAN
 & Tan


BLUE WITH DILUTE TAN POINTS
Heartland's Amazing Blue
Heartland's Amazing Blue
( I WOULDN'T BET THE FARM ON THIS ONE ) 


  • at^at B/- d/d E/- k/k = blue with dilute tan point


SABLE  WITH DILUTE TAN POINTS
CAMELOTS TANDY CREME PRINCE  
at^at b/b d/d E/- k/k = SABLE  with dilute tan points





NON-EXTENSION RED (cream):



~

 

~



  • B/B d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose
  •  (dog is genetically a  dilute black, but will be a dilute color)  silver blue lavender 



  • B/b d/d/ e/e = dilute red to pale cream with black nose


  • dog is genetically a  dilute black, but will be a dilute color)  grey  blue  lilac



  • B/B D/D e/e
     = 
    dilute red to pale cream with black nose
    • d in the chinchilla gene in a double dose  c^e/c^e it goes to   (BLUE POINTS)blue



    BB is homozygous Black (not carrying brown)
    Bb is heterozygous Black (carrying brown)
    bb is homozygous Brown.

    D Locus: This dilution gene acts on both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments. It “dilutes” the base color of the dog. If the dog is “D” or dominant, it is fully pigmented. If the dog is “dd”, this recessive gene dilutes the pigment, thereby altering its color. In Border Collies, the d/d gene is associated with





    B/b D/d e/e  (dog is genetically black, but will be WHITE color) dilute red to pale cream with

     black nose

     
    (dog is 
    genetically black,  but will be dilutecolor)  BLUE
  • f you ad

  • B/b D/d e/e c^e = ICE CREME 




  • B/b D/d e/e  c^e c^e  = ICE WHITE !


  •  


  • B/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with gray nose (dog is genetically a dilute 


  • black, but will be a dilute color)  white dilute 



  • b/b d/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with 
    • rosey-brown nose

          • (dog is genetically  dilute brown, but will be dilute color      Beaver 


  • b/b d/d e/e 
    c^e
     R
    ed to pale cream with
         rosey-brown nose

        • beaver D
      ilute


    •  (dog is genetically  dilute brown, but will be dilute color 

            •     BEAVER DILUTE
        •  

b/b d/d e/e  
c^e/c^e  
      • Red to pale cream with       rosey- nose

      (dog is 
      genetically  dilute brown, but will be........

                                                                       
WHITE CHOCOLATE !

  • b/b D/d e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically 


  • brown, but will be cream color platnumc^b

  • b/b D/D e/e = dilute red to pale cream with brown nose (dog is genetically 


  • brown, but will be dilutecolor) silver c^b


 "liver nose c^b" - or blue-eyed albino. This is an entirely white coat with a very small amount of residual pigment in the 
eyes, giving pale green  eyes. It is also called platinum or silver.  This allelic pair could be responsible for the white 
coated, pink skinned, blue-eyed




BB is homozygous Black (not carrying brown)
Bb is heterozygous Black (carrying brown)
bb is homozygous Brown.

D Locus: This dilution gene acts on both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments. It “dilutes” the base color of the dog. If the dog is “D” or dominant, it is fully pigmented. If the dog is “dd”, this recessive gene dilutes the pigment, thereby altering its color. In Border Collies, the d/d gene is associated with

 skin problems such as Color Dilution Alopecia or hair loss (on the ears is common) which can be seen in the Blue and Lilac dogs.  If the Dilution gene acts on the brown and black coats, you can get the following: black diluted to blue and brown diluted to lilac (see photo to right).

Lilac is caused primarily by a “double recessive” condition of bb at the B gene locus and dd at the Dilute gene locus. It is also possible to produce a Lilac color out of pairings of black-to-black, black to brown, brown-to-brown, black to blue and blue to brown IF the genes are paired correctly AND they both carry the recessive forms of the B and the D gene (“b” and “d”)

To demonstrate the genetic possibilities as mentioned above, let's make both the sire and the dam genotypes the same as BbDd. These black dogs carry both brown and the dilution gene.

BbDd – The Dam can contribute:

BD

bD

Bd

bd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BbDd – The Sire can contribute:

BD

BBDD

BbDD

BBDd

BbDd

 

 

Black

Black

Black

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bD

BbDD

bbDD

BbDd

bbDd

 

 

Black

Brown

Black

Brown

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bd

BBDd

BbDd

BBdd

Bbdd

 

 

Black

Black

Blue

Blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bd

BbDd

bbDd

Bbdd

bbdd

 

 

Black

Brown

Blue

Lilac

    THIS IS  :
    "CAMELOT'S  WHITE CHOCOLATE PRINCESS "
    She is genetically  "c^e" FOR : 
    THE  Chinchilla  GENE 
     AND 
     
    d/d 
     
     FOR 
    THE  DILUTING GENE! 

     (which is the homozygous recessive form)

                                                                                       VERY RARE INDEED ! 
     

    WANT A QUICK REFRESHER COURSE IN GENETICS?
    Pomeranians  are either black or brown ---- other alleles (genes) act upon each other to create different colors or different shades of colors. 

    It is theorized that all breeds of dogs have all of the alleles for different colors. 
    ...

    When you are looking at coat color, it is best to look at the entire picture. The entire picture being all the  alleles that encode for color. We will look at each individual allele and then put them together for the complete coat color.

    Keeping in mind that each puppy receives a copy of each allele from their parents.

    The first listed allele is expressed, the second one is hidden or carried. If one parent is brown (b/b) [also  called chocolate] the "b" allele is the ONLY one that can be copied and inherited by the puppy. So, the puppy  will receive a copy of the "b" allele from one parent. If the other parent is B/B the only allele that the puppy  can receive is "B". So, every puppy will be B/b -- black, carrying brown.

    If one parent is B/b 
    black, carrying brown.the puppy can receive either "B" or "b". If the other parent is also B/b black, carrying brown., the puppy can  receive either "B" or "b". The puppies could be: B/B - black; B/b - black, and carrying brown; or b/b brown/chocolate.

    The 'address' where the genes are located are called Locus (Loci is the plural). Each Locus contains the  different genes that are responsible for encoding (telling) coat color. Some also change skin pigment (like the nose, eye rims and lips).

    Each Locus, with it's genes, are important, because a breeder can either breed a certain color into their  breeding program or breed it out. A breeder can either lighten or darken the coat color, also. Coat color can also prove sometimes that the sire, the person says sired the litter, couldn't genetically be the right one.

    Pigment distribution patterns are controlled by the E and A Loci.

    The E Locus is important because the genes from this Locus are responsible and control black (E/E or E/e)  and red (e/e) color.

    If a dog is the 
    black (E/E or E/e) color, ---- as other color genes are added, the color either changes or  remains black. Think of it like baking a cake. The batter would be the main ingredient and all other  ingredients either change the color of the batter, or leave it the same.

    If a dog is the 
    red (e/e) color, ---- as other ingredients are added, the color remains the same (red or creme). This is what is called "homozygous recessive dominant". The red color is the red color you see on an clear dark red Pomeranian . It comes in different shades. from the lightest creme that looks almost white to the darkest  clear red

    The A Locus:

    contains the genes that encode for sable (a^y), wolf (a^w), saddle (a^s), tan points (a^t), and recessive black 
    (a^a). In order for this coloration to be expressed (seen), the dog must also be "k/k". If you breed two dogs that  have tan points, EVERY puppy in the litter will have tan points. If you can't see any tan points, look  underneath the tail --- it's usually there before any place else on the body.

    Color that is modified by diluting colors are controlled by the B ( black )  C ( chinchilla ) , D ( dilute ) , and M ( Merle)  Loci. The dog will inherit all of these genes, either in the dominant or recessive form.  

     TO GET THE GENETIC TESTING DONE ON YOUR POMERANIAN GO TO THIS SITE  :


    http://www.vetgen.com/canine-coat-color.html

    White is a solid color. The guard hairs are consistently the same color all over the dog's body. The undercoat is also white. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are black. Almost all whites are born snow-white with pink points. As the puppy ages, the points will darken but the coat will remain white.


    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 
    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 

    Jan-Shar's Ripley's Believe It Or Not
    Jan-Shar's Ripley's Believe It Or Not
    Super Girl Of Chiaoliya
    Super Girl Of Chiaoliya
    Ch Stolanne's Light'ning Flashes
    Ch Stolanne's Light'ning Flashes




    Cream is a very pale orange, liver or yellow color. A cream is an even self color throughout with no white breechings. Due to the harsher texture of the guard hairs, the top coat may appear slightly deeper in color than the undercoat. Creams must have black points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads).



    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians


    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians

    Gemeni puppy
    Gemeni puppy
    Am & Intl Ch Genstar's Diamond Gypsy
    Am & Intl Ch Genstar's Diamond Gypsy
    Ch Kayra N Genstar's Kaitlyn
    Ch Kayra N Genstar Kaitlyn
    Am & Intl Ch Genstar's Diamond Gypsy
    Am & Intl Ch Genstar's Diamond Gypsy
    Daybreak's Little Deuce Coup
    Daybreak's Little Deuce Coup
    Ch Trudy's Country Club, ROM
    Ch Trudy's Country Club, ROM
    Ch Kayra N Genstar Kaitlyn
    Ch Kayra N Genstar Kaitlyn




      


    A parti-colored Pomeranian is one with more than one coat color. 

    Ideally, the parti Pomeranian is a white dog with colors that are distributed in patches on the body, 

    with a white blaze preferred on the head. The white is clear of excessive ticking. The patches may be in any of the solid colors.

     All the patches must be the same color. The color of the points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) on parti-colored dogs should be 



    RED AND WHITE

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians

    BLACK AND WHITE

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians  


    in keeping with the points required for the color of the coat patches (i.e., orange, red, black, cream, sable, red merle, 

    blue merle and brindle partis should have black points, blue, and blue sable partis should have blue points, and brown,

     brown merle and beaver partis should have brown points). Symmetry of facial markings is desirable.  

    & Tan Parti-Color

    An & tan parti color is a dog who is displays both the "& tan" pattern and parti-colored pattern (a tan pointed parti). The color of the points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) should be in keeping with the points required for the color of the coat patches (i.e., orange, red, black, cream, sable, red merle, blue merle and brindle parti's should have black points, blue, and blue sable parti's should have blue points, and brown, brown merle and beaver partis should have brown points).


    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 

    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 


    TRI COLOR PARTY ......

    .Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians

    Blue merle – This is the classic gray/black pattern. The blue merle is actually a black or black & tan dog with the dilution gene acting upon the black areas of the coat. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are black. One or both eyes genetically may be blue, have blue flecks or be brown. 

    Red, Liver or Chocolate merle – This is a chocolate dog with the dilution pattern acting upon it. This dog will have a chocolate nose and pigment and the pattern will be chocolate and silvery chocolate. One or both eyes genetically may be blue, have blue flecks or be brown.

    Sable Merle – this is a sable dog with the merling acting primarily upon the black hairs in the coat. In a heavily sabled dog the pattern may be very obvious, while in a lightly sabled dog, it may be imperceptible. The merling pattern is clear at birth but can fade within weeks. An experienced breeder can recognize the distinctive champagne color of the coat of an adult sable merle dog. Pigment of the dog will be black. One or both eyes genetically may be blue, have blue flecks or be brown.

    Variations – Merle can dilute black and chocolate each time it occurs including: black, black and tan, chocolate and tan, dilute black (blue), blue and tan and dilute chocolate (beaver), sables, brindles. Merling can occur in the color areas of parti-colored dogs. Other colors (red, orange, cream) show little visual effect. One or both eyes genetically may be blue, have blue flecks or be brown.

    Please note that the Pomeranian Standard does not allow for blue eyes. Eyes must be dark.

    Blue Merle
    Pom Picture

    Pom Picture
    Pom Picture
    Pombreden's Kauai Blue O-Ce-Ann
    Pom Picture
    Pombreden's Kauai Blue O-Ce-Ann head shot
    Merle & Tan
    Pom Picture
    Pom Picture
    Sable Merle
    Pombreden's Kialua Kona Koffee's - newborn to adult







    Shaded sables are coats that are shaded throughout with three or more colors. This shading must be as uniform as possible with no patches of self color. 

    In red sables the base colors have red hues with black tips. 

    An orange sable has a light orange or creamy undercoat with deeper orange guard hairs ending in black tips. 

    Cream sables are cream variations with black tips.


    Red Sable

    Weewyn Newborn
    Weewyn newborn
    Kilei Puppy
    Kilei puppy ( 3 weeks)
    Kilei Puppy
    ( 6 weeks)
    Kilei puppy
    Red Sable Adult

    Heavy Red Sable

    Ch Daystar Lil Red Rooster Zuran
    Ch Daystar Lil Red Rooster Zuran

    Orange Sable

    Heavy Orange Sable

    Ch Patricia's Golden Phoenix
    Ch Patricia's Golden Phoenix
    Ch Elan's Infinity
    Ch Elan's Infinity
    Ch Patricia's Golden Phoenix
    Ch Patricia's Golden Phoenix
    Ch Elan's Infinity
    Ch Elan's Infinity

    Cream Sable


    Painter's Modern Classic, CGC
    Ch Yellow Rose Exotic
    Ch Yellow Rose Exotic Spice

    Heavy Cream Sable

    Ch Silver Puff Of Canton
    Ch Silver Puff Of Canton

    Brown Sable

    Finch Puppy
    Finch puppy

    Blue Sable

    Blue Sable Puppy
    Weeheart Puppy

     

    A wolf sable has a light grey undercoat with a deeper shade of steel grey guard hairs ending in black tippings. There must not be cream or an orange cast to the base color. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are black.

    Ch Mercer's Exotica
    Ch Mercer's Exotica
    Beau James Eve Of The Wolf
    Beau James Eve Of The Wolf
    Christiannes Dances W Wolves
    Christiannes Dances W Wolves
    Lake Views Call Of The Wild
    Lake Views Call Of The Wild
    Ch Mercer's Exotica
    Ch Mercer's Exotica
    Can Ch Pondside Wings of an Angel
    Can Ch Pondside Wings of an Angel
    Grafenhorst's Lord Of The Dance

    Grafenhorst's Lord Of The Dance

    U

    A proper orange colored coat is a bright, clear orange and varies from a light orange to a deep rich orange. Orange Poms must have black points (eye rims, nose, lips, and pads) according to the Standard. Poms that appear orange (phenotype) as adults may be of two genetic types( genotypes). Newborn puppy appearance will reflect this genetic difference. More commonly a puppy is born smutty (with black hairs) and the coat will become progressively more orange and less smutty as the dog matures until it is bright orange. Otherwise the puppy is born clear (without any black hairs). This is the result of being homozygous for the orange gene (both genes at that locus have the allele for orange "ee"). Homozygous oranges can still range from the palest creamy-orange to the darkest Irish Setter red; however, the pigment of their points is often not as dark as those carrying a sable gene.


    Picture courtesy of Camelot Pomeranians 



    Dimonde's Heir Apparent, Ch. Dimonde's Crown Prince & Dimonde's Tiny Tim
    Dimonde's Heir Apparent, Ch Dimonde's Crown Prince and Dimonde's Tiny Tim
    Ch. Dimonde's Crown Prince & Dimonde's Heir Apparent
    Ch Dimonde's Crown Prince & Dimonde's Heir Apparent
    (at 10 weeks)
    Ch. Dimonde's Crown Prince & Dimonde's Heir Apparent
    Ch Dimonde's Crown  Prince & Dimonde's Heir Apparent
    (at 16 weeks)
    Am Can Ch Chriscendo Calvin Klein, ROMX
    Am Can Ch Chriscendo Calvin Klein, ROMX
    Ch Great Elms Prince Charming II, ROMX HOF
    Ch Great Elms Prince Charming II, ROMX HOF

    Orange Newborns "ee"
    Pom Puppies
     
     
    Ch Kilei's Fifth Element
    Ch Kilei's Fifth Element 
    Ch Kilei's Fifth Element
    Ch Kilei's Fifth Element


     

    A true red is not dark orange, but a deep rusty red. Red poms must have black points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads). 

    Bobii's Puppy
    Bobii's Newborn
    Mi Babe Matinee Idol
    Mi Babe Matinee Idol
    Ch Kilei's No Worries
    Ch Kilei's No Worries
    (6 weeks)
    Ch Marbil's Tickled Pink
    Ch Marbil's Tickled Pink
    Jenuwane Puppy
    Jenuwane puppy
    Ch Kilei's No Worries
    Ch Kilei's No Worries
    Ragdoll's Dragonslayer
    Ragdoll's Dragonslayer
    Idlewyld Adult
    Idlewyld adult
    Ch Marbil's Tickled Pink
    Ch Marbil's Tickled Pink 

    The Brindle pattern consists of stripe overlays on a base color. The base color is gold, red, or orange brindled with strong black cross stripes. It may appear in conjunction with another coat pattern such as Parti or Black & Tan (the stripes will show in the tan areas). The undercoat and points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) should be correct for the base color. The stripes may be broad or thin and may extend the entire width of the body or only part of the width. Because adult Pomeranian coats become longer than their puppy coats, the stripes may appear broken in the adult coat. Some Brindles may have a dark dorsal stripe.

    Ponderosa brindle newborn
    Ponderosa brindle newborn
    Ponderosa brindle newborn
    Ponderosa brindle newborn
    Ch Jan Le's Rumm Tumm Tigger
    Ch Jan Le's Rumm Tumm Tigger
    Ch Lil-Ponderosa A'Million Bucks
    Ch Lil-Ponderosa A'Million Bucks
    Ch Jan Le's Rumm Tumm Tigger
    Ch Jan Le's Rumm Tumm Tigger
    Ch Jan Le's Color Me Badd
    Ch Jan Le's Color Me Badd
    Ponderosa brindle newborn
    Lil-Ponderosa Sparks A'Flyin
    Lil-Ponderosa Sparks
    Lil-Ponderosa Sparks A'Flyin


    The color brown includes all shades from the darkest chocolate to the lighter beaver. The chocolate is a rich dark candy color that is self-colored throughout. Brown is more milk chocolate, occasionally appearing with lighter shadings. Some reddening, or "sun burning" of the coat may appear in dogs which spend time outdoors. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are brown.  If the coat contains any other color, the dog is more properly referred to as a brown & tan, parti-color, or bi-color. 

    Beaver is a dilute form of brown with shades ranging from a cream-beige to an orange-brown. In previous standards it was referred to as biscuit. One distinguishing feature is self-colored beige/brown pigment on nose, lips, eye rims, and foot pads.

    A dog which has any black in its coat or points is not a brown or beaver.

    Brown (chocolate)

    Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
    Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
    Janesa puppy
    Janesa puppy
    Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
    Ch Stolanne's Burnt Sienna Kiss
    Ch Her-She's Cocoa Blizzard
    Ch Her-She's Cocoa Blizzard
    Ch Starlite Legacy Choco Bear
    Ch Starlite Legacy Choco Bear

    Chocolate Sable

     
    Exotic Chocolate Frosting
    Exotic Chocolate Frosting
     

    Beaver

    Exotic Can You Believe
    Exotic Can You Believe
    Ch Heartland's Knight N Day
    CH Heartland's Knight N Day
    Ch Heartland's Knight N Day
    CH Heartland's Knight N Day

     

    Pomeranians with the "& Tan pattern" or "Tan Pointed" come in three base colors - black, brown and blue. All three base colors share the same tan marking pattern.

    Pattern: The pattern is sharply defined with Tan points appearing above each eye, on both sides of the muzzle, cheeks, inside of ears, throat, fore chest which has either one very large tan spot or two tan spots called "rosettes" on each side of the chest above the front legs; on all legs and feet, there may be a distinct "pencil mark" line in the base color running lengthwise on the top of each toe on all four feet; the underside of the tail which is on top when the tail is carried over the back; and the pantaloons or skirt. The tan color ranges from a light cream (sometimes referred to as "silver") to a dark mahogany rust. Occasionally there is a lack of the & Tan pattern causing some of the markings to be lost or diminished. 

    Dogs with any white, other than age graying on the muzzle, with tan markings in areas other than those described here, or without tan markings in the required areas are more correctly referred to as black, brown or blue with tan markings parti color.

    Black & Tan

    Black & Tan poms are black poms with tan or rust.  The undercoat of the base color should be a lighter shade of the base color and the points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) should be black. In Black & Tan dogs of equal quality, darker rust markings are preferred over lighter tan markings. 

    Brown & Tan

    Brown & Tan, referred to as Chocolate & Tan, include all shades from darkest chocolate to light beaver with tan or rust. They should have brown points, the darkness of the points should be in keeping with the darkness of the base coat color.

    Blue & Tan

    Blue & Tan poms are blue poms with tan or rust. They should have blue points, the darkness of the points should be in keeping with the darkness of the base coat color.

    Black & Tan

    Sunglo's Havin A Back-N-Tantrum
    Sunglo's Havin A Black-N-Tantrum
    Sunglo's Havin A Back-N-Tantrum
    Sunglo's Havin A Black-N-Tantrum
    Showcase puppy
    Showcase puppy
    Sunglo's Havin A Back-N-Tantrum
    Sunglo's Havin A Black-N-Tantrum
    BIS Ch Southland's Black Tie N Tails
    BIS Ch Southland's Black Tie N Tails

    Ch Painters Kilei's Star X'd Lvr

    Black & Rust

    Idlewyld Newborns
    Idlewyld Newborns
    Idlewyld Newborns
    Idlewyld Newborns
    Finch Puppy
    Finch puppy
    Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture
    Am Can Ch Chriscendo Colour Picture

    Brown (chocolate) & Tan

    Aphrodites Newborn
    Aphrodites newborn
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Aphrodite's Coco Chanel
    Heartland's Chocolate Rebel
    Heartland's Chocolate Rebel

    Blue & Tan

    Chinookwind's Puppy
    Chinookwind's puppy
    Gemeni's Blue Rebel Tuff
    Gemeni's Blue Rebel Tuff
    Heartland's Amazing Blue
    Heartland's Amazing Blue



    contains the genes that encode for sable (a^y), wolf (a^w), saddle (a^s), tan points (a^t), and recessive black 
    (a^a). In order for this coloration to be expressed (seen), the dog must also be "k/k". All Pomeranians  that have tan 
    points are "k/k", all  Pomeranians  that do not have tan points are either "K/K" or "K/k". If you breed two dogs that 
    have tan points, EVERY puppy in the litter will have tan points. If you can't see any tan points, look 

    underneath the tail --- it's usually there before any place else on the body 

    Blue is a solid color which is actually light to dark grey and often has a bluish cast. The undercoat is also grey. Blue puppies are born the color of silver or appear black before developing a silvery grey undercoat and a darker slate blue top coat.

    Some Blues may be so dark that they appear Black until they are seen next to a true representative of those colors. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are blue. If the coat contains any other color, the dog is more properly referred to as a parti-color, or bi-color.

    Starlite Misty Dawn of BCPoms
    Starlite Misty Dawn of BCPoms

    Proc N TiAmo's Indigo Dreamer
    Proc N TiAmo's Indigo Dreamer
    Ch Ursa Minor's Something Blue
    Ch Ursa Minor's Something Blue


    A black is generally pictured as "coal black", completely devoid of any white, red or brown hairs. The guard hairs are consistently the same color all over the dog's body although some reddening, or "sun burning" of the coat may appear in those dogs which spend time outdoors. The undercoat may be lighter in color particularly prior to shedding. The points (eye rims, nose, lips and pads) are black.
    Northmoor Wind Dancer
    Northmoor Wind Dancer
    Weewyn puppies
    Weewyn puppies
    Northmoor Wind Dancer
    Northmoor Wind Dancer
    (4 weeks)
    Showcase Daddy's Girl
    Showcase Daddy's Girl
    Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
    Ch Finch's He Walks On Water, ROMS GC HOF
    Ch Starfire's Aunt-Jemima
    Ch Starfire's Aunt-Jemima

    Updated: November 01, 2006

     

    Red, Orange, Cream, Sable ClassBlack, Brown, Blue ClassAny Other Allowable Color Class
    Pom Button
    Red
    Pom Button
    Orange
    Pom Button
    Cream
    Pom Button
    Sable
    Pom Button
    Black
    Pom Button
    Brown
    Pom Button
    Blue
    Pom Button
    & Tan
    Pom Button
    White
    Pom Button
    Wolf Sable
    Pom Button
    Parti
    Pom Button
    Brindle
    Pom Button
    All 

     

    I FOUND THIS INTERESTING READING :

    Dogs are either black or brown ---- other alleles (genes) act upon each other to create different colors or 
    different shades of colors. It is theorized that all breeds of dogs have all of the alleles for different colors. 

    Some dogs have been selectively bred over many years to be dominant for a certain color or colors

    READ MORE AT THIS LINK :

    http://www.germancoolies.com/WhatColor.html